A New Understanding of Dengue Virus Behaviour at Cellular Level Using A Mathematical Model
Identifying the Issue
While there are vector-host models developed to study the dengue virus at population level, very few works performed to understand the dengue viral dynamics in human body. None of the current models as per our study has considered the role of innate immune response in the defence to the dengue viral attack until recently one of them by Rotem Ben-Shachar and Katia Koelle, introduced innate immune response and showed that it can reproduce the characteristic features of the primary infection.
In this paper, a non-linear model is proposed which incorporates innate and adaptive (both cellular and humoral) immune responses, studying the Dengue virus at cellular level using a mathematical model.
Objective of the Research
- We propose to study the dynamics of within-host epidemic model of dengue infection which incorporates both innate immune response and adaptive immune response (Cellular and Humoral)
- The proposed model also incorporates the time delay for production of antibodies from B cells and understand the dynamics of this model using the dynamical systems approach by performing the stability and sensitivity analysis
- Both the above can help detect and control the dengue virus better and understand the dengue viral dynamics in human body
Who should read this?
Those working in the field of Mathematics, Bio-Mathematics, Mathematical Modeling, research, and other related academic fields, and Doctors, especially Physicians.
The critical level of the antibody recruitment rate(q) was found to be responsible for the existence and stability of various steady states. The stability of endemic state was found to be dependent on time delay. The sensitivity analysis identified the production rate of antibodies (q) to be highly sensitive parameter.
- The existence and stability conditions for the equilibrium states of the disease have been obtained
- The threshold value of time delay has been computed which is critical for change in stability of the endemic state
Key Features and Benefits
- It has been observed that that innate response co-relates with the virus titer in the early stages of the infection which can help in an early detection of a serious disease
- The production rate of antibodies (q) was found to be highly sensitive
- It was observed that the burst rate of virus particles (k) has a predictable behaviour and the rate of infection(β1) is sensitive only in some interval range
- The works presented in this paper could enhance our understanding of this complex immune response
- The model can help in detection of the disease in the early stages of the infection
- Deva Siva Sai Murari Kanumoori: University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy
- D Bhanu Prakash: Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning – SSSIHL, India
- D. K. K. Vamsi: Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning – SSSIHL, India
- Carani B Sanjeevi: Vice-Chancellor, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning -SSSIHL
Paper Published In: Computational and Mathematical Biophysics 9, no. 1 (2021): 66-80
Read Paper Here: https://doi.org/10.1515/cmb-2020-0118
Task-sharing to screen perinatal depression in resource limited setting in India: Comparison of outcomes based on screening by non-expert and expert rater
The STAR Lab, SSSIHL, has published a new article in Asian Journal of Psychiatry that presents the task sharing approach as an effective strategy for the detection of perinatal depression in rural area of South India. This study presents a synergistic outcome from the educational and medical institutions established by Bhagawan Sri Sathya Sai Baba, Founder Chancellor, SSSIHL. This collaborative effort was carried out at Sri Sathya Sai General Hospital (SSSGH), Prasanthi Nilayam over a period of three years. The longitudinal study involved two expert doctors from the SSSGH (Prasanthi Nilayam and Whitefield), three psychiatrists (two from Schizophrenia Research Foundation, Chennai, and one from Government Medical College/Government General Hospital, Anantapur) and a biostatistician from Germany, all of whom worked continuously with the members from the STAR Lab, SSSIHL.
Study and Outcome
In this work, we have assessed the quality of perinatal depression screening by a non-expert in the context of task sharing in a rural Indian maternity service. This is a longitudinal study carried out for three years involving voluntary participation of pregnant women right from the second trimester up to 3 months post-delivery. A qualified midwife (trained by a psychiatrist and doctors from SSSGH) administered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), a questionnaire that is widely used for identifying possible depressive symptoms in pregnant women and new mothers. With the study participants’ consent, these EPDS sessions were recorded (audio/video) in line with the approval obtained from the SSSIHL institutional ethics committee. As part of the study, these audio/video recordings were analyzed by expert psychiatrists. Several studies have suggested that task-sharing is an effective strategy to monitor perinatal depression (PND), but no study has assessed the quality of PND detection by a non-expert, in the context of task-sharing especially in a rural Indian population. This approach further addresses the shortage of mental health care professionals (MHPs) in resource limited settings, especially in low and middle income countries and promotes remote care solutions during the pandemic. Our research study findings suggest that with adequate training, in the absence of experts (psychiatrists), non-experts (midwives) can be highly effective at task-sharing implemented for screening PND.
This study has a significant impact on society, particularly in rural areas, with respect to healthcare management. Our research outcome recommends that with sufficient training, non-experts (midwives) can be effective at task-sharing, implemented for the screening of PND at clinical centers where availability of MHPs is limited. The empowerment of non-experts for the given task will also serve as an excellent alternative to address the shortage of MHPs in resource limited areas, especially in rural areas of India. This training can also provide an alternative for remote care even during the pandemic
Pradeep Kumar Badiya, Sasidhar Siddabattuni, Venkatesh Srinivasan and Sai Sathish Ramamurthy
STAR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam, 515134, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Independent Researcher, Biostatistician, Munich, 82152, Germany.
Akkamahadevi C. Hiremath
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sri Sathya Sai General Hospital, Whitefield, Bangalore, 560066, India.
Raj Lakshmi Nalam
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sri Sathya Sai General Hospital, Prasanthi Nilayam, 515134, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Sridhar Vaitheswaran and Aarthi Ganesh
Schizophrenia Research Foundation, Chennai 600101, Tamil Nadu, India
Department of Psychiatry, Government medical college/Government General Hospital, Anantapur, 515001, Andhra Pradesh, India
Article Published In: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Read Article Here: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1dKRT6gcL74LZP
Novel Rational Nanohybrid Engineering approach to augment Sensor Technology capabilities
The STAR Lab, SSSIHL, has published a new paper in ACS Applied Nano Materials that demonstrates the use of a novel biopolymer, soluplus-mediated plasmonic nanohybrids for mobile phone-based biosensing applications. This judicious synergy of materials at nanoregime are utilized to revisit and overcome the perpetual problem of Ohmic lossy quenching in metals, thereby demonstrating excellent performance in sensing analytes of interest.
Identifying the Issue
- Sensors are widely used in industrial processes, public health control, homeland security, forensics, environmental health monitoring.
- Photonic nanomaterials made of metallized nanoparticles are globally used for sensor technology development. However, their true potential is plagued by inevitable intrinsic Ohmic losses, that hinder the performance of any sensing platform.
- Therefore, there is a constant need for hybrid material green technologies for global market sensor industries, using nanochemistry-based biocompatible methods.
Objective of the Research
- Identifying fundamental reasons which lead to interband Ohmic losses in terms of basic chemistry and biophysics of nanomaterials.
- Finding an economically viable green technology solution to minimize/prevent the Ohmic losses and improve the performance of plasmonic materials, which in turn translates into superior efficiencies for the industries offering solutions based on sensing technologies.
- Improving the overall sensitivity and specificity of sensor materials in comparison with cost-intensive and hazardous nano-sensor techniques.
Who should read this?
Anyone in industry, working directly or indirectly on sensor development or sensing-related technologies including, security, surveillance, monitoring, environmental safety monitoring, medical technologies, and disease diagnostics. Further, this article will be extremely useful to researchers currently faced with the problem of ‘Losses in plasmonic nanomaterials.
AgAu NanoHyrbid Engineering – A burgeoning practical solution for the problems in biosensors
- The eco-friendly and biocompatible methodologies for diverse applications in nanophotonics and biomedical domains are discussed in this work.
- Soluplus is a graft copolymer of polyvinyl caprolactam – polyvinyl acetate – polyethylene glycol. Although extensively used for improving the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, amphiphilic chemical bi-functional properties have so far not been explored for green nanosynthesis.
- The three main long-lasting challenges in plasmonic technology development have been addressed experimentally and theoretically in this research work. The proposed hybrid materials overcome the following caveats: (i) inescapable quenching in the presence of AuNPs, (ii) chemical unsteadiness in AgNPs, and (iii) inherent Ohmic losses in metallized NPs.
Key Features and Benefits
- Use of hybrid plasmonic passages to avoid Ohmic losses.
- Experimental demonstration of dequenched and augmented SPCE enhancement.
- The multifold nanogaps generated by the nano-engineered hybrids sustain innumerable hotspots catering to the attomolar sensitivity of the SPCE reporter molecule, rhodamine B (RhB).
- The proposed green nanotechnology platform is useful in disease diagnostics for monitoring the early stages of the disease and also aid in the fabrication of smart sensor chips for use in Point-of-Care (POC) devices.
- A simple, user-friendly, cost-effective methodology presenting a state of “dequenching the quenched” phenomenon successfully addressing the decade-long issue of ‘zone of inactivity’ in plasmonics.
- The subject platform is expected to find immediate deployment for real-time POC medical diagnostics. It is strongly believed that this study presents a stepping stone to a plethora of exciting plasmonic nano-architectures and disruptive diagnostics in near future with the aid of Au-Ag-Au noble metal plasmon passage rationality.
- An industry or market seeking such devices with augmented sensitivity could take forward the proposed methodology for utility in early disease diagnostics, environmental safety, and industrial applications.
- A green approach for Nano-engineering of AgAu inter-plasmonic and photonic sensor platforms that are of immense benefit for low- and middle-income countries, in resource-limited settings.
- The mobile phone-based sensor platform presents a user-eco-friendly and economical detector compared to existing high-cost spectrophotometers.
Aayush Rai, Seemesh Bhaskar, Sai Sathish Ramamurthy. STAR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, CRIF, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam, Puttaparthi, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh 515134, India
Paper Published In: ACS Applied Nano Materials
Read Paper Here: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsanm.1c00841
New GraSP Engineering to Help Enhance the Performance of Sensing Technologies
The SSSIHL STAR Lab Research team, led by Asst. Professor Dr. Sai Sathish Ramamurthy, has published a new paper in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces that explores the use of a novel metal-free, graphene oxide-based photonic crystal framework (GraSP engineering) for Biosensing application. It enhances the performance of plasmonic materials and overcomes Ohmic losses in metals.
Identifying the Issue
- Sensors are of wide-spread use in industrial processes, public health control, homeland security, safety and monitoring
- Plasmonic materials made of metal nano-architectures are world-wide used for sensor technology development. However, their performance is plagued by inevitable intrinsic Ohmic losses, that impede the performance any sensing platform.
- As a result, there is constant hunt for alternative material technology development for global market sensor industries
Objective of the Research
- Identifying the root cause which leads to Ohmic losses
- Finding a cost-effective non-metal-based solution to minimize/stop the Ohmic losses and improve the performance of plasmonic materials, which in turn translates into greater efficiencies for the industries offering solutions based on sensing technologies
- Explore the possibility of the solution aiding in improving the overall sensitivity and specificity by 3-4 times as compared to existing metal-dependent sensor techniques
Who should read this?
Anyone in the industry, working directly or indirectly on sensor development or sensing related technologies including, security, surveillance, monitoring, environmental safety monitoring, medical technologies, and disease diagnostics.
GraSP Engineering – A Eureka moment for the future of Sensing technologies
- The nanophotonic performance of the multistack was analyzed and successfully demonstrated to realize ‘graphene oxide plasmon-coupled soliton emission’ (abbreviated as GraSE) with steering/beaming emission characteristic as well as ‘graphene oxide plasmon-coupled emission’ (abbreviated as GraPE) with directional property
- Since both beaming GraSE and directional GraPE could be captured in a single platform, the combination led to the birth of GraSP emission platform
- An everyday example of soliton is a self-sustaining water bubble that maintains its shape as it moves, all the way from the bottom of the tank to the surface, in completely still water. Similar solitons transporting emitted photons in GraSP platform are successfully demonstrated in this research work for augmented sensor performance.
- GraSP can now simplify the existing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology with enhanced performance
Key Features and Benefits
- Use of non-metal platform to avoid Ohmic loss
- GraSP improves the overall sensitivity and specificity by 3-4 times as compared to existing metal-dependent sensor techniques
- The extreme light entrapment and augmentation via hotspots from surface states and nanoscopic volumes aided in lowering the detection limit of the HuIFN-γ antigen to 1.95 pg mL−1, for superior performance in resource limited settings
- GraSP platform is useful in disease diagnostics in early stages of disease conditions and also help in the advancement of Point-of-Care (POC) devices
- A simple, user-friendly, cost-effective methodology is adopted to realize GraSP engineering with soliton-aided metal analogues and directional emission patterns on a conventional existing sensor technology based on plasmonic platform
- The subject platform is expected to find immediate deployment for real-time point-of-care medical diagnostics. It is strongly believed that this study presents a stepping stone to a plethora of exciting plasmonic architectures and disruptive diagnostics in near future.
- An industry or market seeking such devices with augmented sensitivity could take forward the proposed methodology for utility in early disease diagnostics, environmental safety and industrial applications
- GrasP is especially beneficial for low- and middle-income countries
Seemesh Bhaskar, Naga Sai Visweswar Kambhampati, K. M. Ganesh, Mahesh Sharma P, Venkatesh Srinivasan, and Sai Sathish Ramamurthy. STAR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam, Puttaparthi, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh 515134, India.
Paper Published In: ACS Applied Matter Interfaces.
Read Paper Here: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.1c01024
SSSIHL Research Fellow’s Popular Science Story Wins an AWSAR Award
“Augmenting Writing Skills for Articulating Research (AWSAR)” has been an initiative by Department of Science and Technology (DST) that aims to disseminate Indian research stories among the masses in an easy to understand and interesting format to a common man.
In order to bridge the yawning communication gap that exists at the science-society interface, Ph.D. Scholars and Post-Doctoral Fellows (PDFs) in Science and Technology (S&T) streams are encouraged to write popular science articles and to participate in a national competition. DST had received overwhelming responses from various research labs in the country, capturing and revealing the message of science in an easy-to-understand but at the same time interesting format, to connect with the masses.
In this background, Sri Seemesh Bhaskar, DST-Inspire Research Fellow, STAR Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning has been selected to the award, winning a prize of ₹10,000/- along with a Certificate of Appreciation. A panel consisting of eminent science communicators and scientists, constituted by DST, has evaluated the entries. It is a proud moment that, in more than 5000+ participants, Sri Seemesh Bhaskar has secured a position within the top 100 for his popular science story entitled “Unity in Diversity- a Moonshot to Disruptive Innovations”, transliterated on the recently published* article: ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 30, 34323–34336. The award ceremony was streamed live on YouTube, Facebook, and India Science websites on National Science Day, February 28th, 2021.
For more on the Award: https://www.awsar-dst.in/results-2020
*Read the Paper: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsami.0c07515
SSSIHL DFNS Team Bags I and II Prizes at the International Diabetes Summit 2021
The Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences (DFNS), SSSIHL, won the first and second prizes for Basic Research Category at the 5th International Diabetes Summit (Virtual) – 2021, organised by the Chellaram Diabetes Institute, Pune, from 12th to 14th March 2021. This event hosted the best-in-class experts in the field of diabetes from leading national and global diabetes institutions and had over 5000 participants.
The first prize was awarded to Prof. B. Andallu, an honorary faculty at DFNS, for her presentation on “Antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and cataract retardation effects of mulberry (Morus indica L.) leaves in STZ-diabetic rats“. Her research paper brought out the therapeutic benefits of mulberry in the amelioration of diabetic complications. The award included a certificate and prize money of Rupees One Lakh.
The second prize was awarded to Ms. Ashrita C. Haldipur, doctoral research scholar from DFNS, working under the supervision of Dr. N. Srividya, Head and Associate Professor, DFNS. Her research paper entitled “Glucose regulatory Indian red rice genotypes for diabetes management: Metabolomic, in vitro and in vivo validation”, addressed the dietary challenge faced by the rice-eating population world over suffering from diabetes using advanced and modern research methods.
Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning (SSSIHL) congratulates Prof. B. Andallu and Ms. Ashrita C. Haldipur for their achievement and making the University proud with their wonderful work.
Research Scholar Honoured by ARCI, DST – Bags First Prize
Ms. Sai Kiran M, a doctoral research scholar with Department of Chemistry, SSSIHL, Anantapur won the first prize for her talk entitled “Self- assembled PVA -Based for Effective Defluoridation of Ground Water”* at the Science Technology Innovation Talks (STIN 2021) event, streamed on a virtual platform on 25-26 February 2021.
Organized by the International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI), Hyderabad to commemorate the Golden Jubilee celebrations of the Department of Science and Technology (DST) on National Science Day, Young Research Fellows from across India were invited to present their research work in the form of a 3-minute presentation in the area of Material Science and Engineering at STIN 2021.
A total of 68 shortlisted participants from premier Institutes like IIScs, IITs, CSIR labs, and Central universities presented their work on 25 February, 2021 to a panel of eminent professors and senior scientists, who chose the winners based on the novelty, scientific and technical content and their relevance to societal needs.
Ms. Sai Kiran was awarded the first prize for her presentation which included prize money of 10,000 INR and a Certificate of Appreciation signed by the Chairman of the Organizing committee Dr. P.K Jain and the Director ARCI,
Dr. G. Padmanabham.
Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning (SSSIHL) congratulates Ms. Sai Kiran for the above-mentioned recognition and for making the University proud.
* Reference: Mani, Sai Kiran, Rajni Bhandari, and Anita Nehra. “Self-assembled cylindrical Zr (IV), Fe (III) and Cu (II) impregnated polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrogel beads for real-time application in fluoride removal.” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 610 (2021): 125751. DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2020.127571
Read the Paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0927775720313443?via%3Dihub
Also view a news report published in 02, March 2021 Hyderabad edition of The Hindu: https://bit.ly/3soGPlj
Langmuir publication – Femtomolar Detection of Spermidine
Noble metals such as gold and silver behave contrastively at nano-dimensions. While silver intrinsically enhances the luminescence of a fluorophore (a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation), gold quenches the same.
In an attempt to overcome this inevitable loss in plasmon-coupled emission platform, Dr. Sai Sathish Ramamurthy, Asst. Professor, STAR Labs and Dr. S Prathap Chandran, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Chemistry, SSSIHL have come up with novel hybridized plasmon engineering methodology.
The research group have innovated a translation application using a cell phone camera to detect spermidine in aqueous samples. Further research could help realize the detection of spermidine in biological specimens as well.
Spermidine is an indispensable natural polyamine compound – found in ribosomes & living tissues, having various metabolic functions within organisms, required for maintaining cellular homeostasis in every living organism. Apart from exhibiting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, this molecule significantly affects several biological processes including tissue regeneration, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects, regulation of translation, cell growth and proliferation, DNA and RNA stabilization, and enzymatic modulation to name a few.
The group have published a paper entitled: Femtomolar Detection of Spermidine using Au Decorated SiO Nanohybrid on Plasmon-Coupled Extended Cavity Nanointerface: A Smartphone based Fluorescence Dequenching approach.
Read the paper in ACS Langmuir: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.langmuir.9b03869
#SSSIHLChemistry #SSIHLCRIF #STARlabResearch #hybridized plasmons #femtomolarsensing
SAI-GC – for non-invasive cancer imaging
Researchers from the Dept. of Physics, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, in collaboration with Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, have created breakthrough technology to invent a portable, cost-effective and high-resolution Gamma Camera system – SAI-GC – for non-invasive cancer imaging. The research was led by Prof. S Siva Sankara Sai and Dr. Murali Ravi.
The gamma camera is an imaging technique used to carry out functional scans of the mammary, thyroid, kidneys and bone to identify any defects. Gamma scan is a diagnostic test in nuclear medicine, where radioisotopes are attached to drugs that travel to a specific organ or tissue are taken internally and the emitted gamma radiation is captured by gamma cameras to form images, a process similar to the capture of x-ray images – but with additional advantage of providing the functional information of the organ.
The project was funded by Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India. The prototype has passed the requirements with Clinical Validation on all the subjects that were part of the study. Based on the results of the study, an additional project of about ₹1.08 crores has been granted to the research group by the Dept. of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India, to make a fully handheld product for Sentinel Lymph Node Navigation surgery.
Clinical trials in thyroid scanning were conducted at Healthcare Global Enterprises (HCG) Ltd., a healthcare organization headquartered in Bangalore specializing in Cancer imaging, with positive results.
When it comes to market, this device (which offers superior imaging capabilities) will cost almost 8-10 times less than existing large field of view gamma cameras. It will help in identifying ailments related to thyroid, mammary glands, bone hotspots, sentinel lymph node navigation and excision for millions of people who currently cannot afford such medical care.
In India alone, it is estimated that 42 million people suffer from thyroid diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment remain the cornerstone of medical management.
The invention is covered by two patents.
#SSSIHLResearch #SSSIHLPhysics #SSSIHL
Non-toxic nanomaterials with magnetic properties
Dr. (Miss) Deepa Seetharaman, Associate Professor and Miss Lavanya Rathi P, Doctoral Research Scholar, as a part of their efforts to prepare non-toxic nanomaterials with magnetic properties for use in medical, data and energy storage, magnetic sensing, and contaminant removal applications, have published a paper on synthesized magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide doped with tin by a simple and cost effective method.
Read the paper here: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2019.09.294
#SSSIHLResearch #SSSIHL #materialsscience #nanomaterials